Boxer is developed by Johan Bos and generates semantic representations. It takes as input CCG (Combinatory Categorial Grammar) derivations and produces DRSs (Discourse Representation Structures, from Hans Kamp's Discourse Representation Theory) as output. It is distributed with the C&C tools.

Boxer produces standard DRS syntax, uses a neo-Davidsonian analysis for events (with proto, VerbNet?, or Framenet roles), incorporates Van der Sandt's algorithm for presupposition, is 100% compatible with first-order logic (FOL), and normalises cardinal and date expressions.

DRSs can be generated in various output formats: resolved or underspecified, in Prolog or XML, flattened or recursive structures, with discourse referents represented by Prolog atoms or variables, and with pretty printed DRSs or not. It is also possible to output FOL formulas translated from the DRSs.

If you want to be informed about updates and changes to Boxer please email Johan Bos. If you're using Boxer and want to cite it in a publication, here are two suggestions:

  • James R. Curran, Stephen Clark, and Johan Bos (2007): Linguistically Motivated Large-Scale NLP with C&C and Boxer. Proceedings of the ACL 2007 Demonstrations Session (ACL-07 demo), pp.33-36. pdf bib
  • Johan Bos (2008): Wide-Coverage Semantic Analysis with Boxer. In: J. Bos, R. Delmonte (eds): Semantics in Text Processing. STEP 2008 Conference Proceedings, pp.277-286, Research in Computational Semantics, College Publications. pdf bib